While the book has gone through a long history of history, the form, content, production, and distribution process have changed greatly, but have common features. First, the book was produced as a means of communication. Second, letters and other visual symbolic systems (pictures, notes, symbols) are used to convey meaning. Third, it is a publication that is actually distributed to the general public. Thus, a book can be defined as having a substantial amount of content, intended for mass distribution, and written on a material that is as lightweight and robust as it can be portable. These two functions of the book, portable usability and permanent preservation allow people to present, explain, communicate and preserve knowledge and information in the book.
Old books may simply refer to ancient papers, worn off and old books, but in reality they can be said to be very valuable if they are over 50 years old. In Korea, books published before 1959 are generally recognized as old books with rare and collectible values.
In terms of records, ancient books serve as a medium for linking past cultures and thoughts. Our old books, which have used woodblocks and typefaces for a long time, have greatly contributed to the creation of various cultural foundations. Old books can be reborn as new books, depending on how they are used. An old book is a rich and valuable thing that contains the ancestors’ wisdom.
Bibliography is the science of researching, analyzing, criticizing, and studying books. Morphological bibliography is an analysis of the morphological characteristics of the book, which is a bowl of intellectual dissipation, and the process of its transformation, through an empirical method. It can be said that it is a scholarship that proves the personality and timing of the book and studies and describes various issues related to the book.
When examining a book on the basis of morphology, the following considerations should be considered. In particular, the sentiment of the report can be considered an essential check.
1. The characteristics of the times that the Manual shows in terms of external forms.
2. According to the internal form, the classification of the secretary or the human manuscript or the manuscript
3. If it is a human copy, whether it is a block book or print type
4. If it is a manuscript, identify whether it is a book in manuscript form or a copy.
5. In case of a block book, confirm the stamp person and the date of stamping.
6. In case of printing capital, check the type of printing, personal identification and timing of printing.
7. Analysis of the type and size, number of rows, number of black spheres
8. Characteristics of its Characters
9. The Treasury Stamp and the Owner Stamp
10. Material and Time of Production of Paper
11. Marking and Cover Patterns
- Development of books and types of ancient papers
After the invention of the characters, people used to write down every single experience they had experienced, felt and newly discovered in their daily life with a brush to make a book, and to copy it again in order to learn and master it. This is a copy of the handwriting tool. The manuscript took a lot of time to make a single right, and the mistakes of typo and the deviant were severe.
Gradually, the development of culture demanded the mass production of books without typo defectors. Finally, woodblock printing was invented, and so-called woodblock editions emerged from the necessary books. The production of woodcuts took a long time and costly to engrave letters and drawings on wooden boards. However, there was an advantage that, once accurately carved, the bookcase could be kept long and taken off as often as needed.
Here are some terms that are related to woodblocks.
Chaekpan : Wooden board of the text of the book engraved
Gyeongpan : Wooden board of the Buddhist text engraved
Dopan : Inscribed wooden board
Mokpan : Wooden boards like Dopan boards
Panbon : A book taken on a wooden board
Panhwa : Painting taken on a wooden board
However, the production of wood editions was costly and time consuming and costly, except for only a few measures. Thus, a new and different typography was created. Finally, the letters were pre-printed in print and can be typed and stripped whenever a book is needed. It is the birth of the so-called letter type.
The printing of these capitals was incredible compared to the print editions of wood prints because the required time and cost could be produced economically and necessary. Typefaces include metal type and wooden type, depending on the type of materials used.
As the book production dates go down in the order of hand-written manuscripts, wood copies, and print letters, it is thought that the letters that are close to modern times have more numbers, but in fact, there are more wood copies on the contrary. Typefaces, especially metal typefaces, are very rare.
In addition to this, books were also written by Seokpan, Youngin, and Boksa. Lithographic printing is a method of flat printing, which prints and prints letters, symbols, pictures, etc., on the surface of the slabs, using a mixture of soap and fat. The book was called “Seokpanbon” or “Seokpanbon”, and it began in the early 20th century. English and copying refer to the use of scientific methods, such as photographs or electron beams, to reduce the circular or magnification of the original. This book is called a copy of Younginbon.
The term “Ganinbon” is a term used to refer to all kinds of wood prints, print letters, stone prints, and Younginbon prints.
- The characteristics of ancient books by period
The three countries of the world, Korea, China, and Japan, have the same Chinese character culture. They have similar patterns in different periods of literature and have undergone similar developmental stages. As Korea exchanged with China, it was able to access books and materials containing various contents. It has been transformed according to the purpose and function of the rolled-up capital in the form of scrolls, in the form of folding screens, and bounded with thread.
The Korean edition published in the Joseon Dynasty since the introduction of the Seonjangbon may vary according to scholars, depending on the age of scholarship, but can be classified into four steps according to the criteria of the period.
1. From the beginning of the 15th century to the end of the 16th century
Each edition of this period is much more powerful than the later ones, and its printing is not as good as that of later printing, but it has its own characteristics. As a whole, however, it was not refined in all aspects, such as typography, engraving, engraving techniques compared to that of Korea.
2. 17th century
This is a time when the political and social economy changed rapidly due to the war, and thus the various patterns of change can be seen in the plates. One of the popular plates that was popular before the Imjin War was lost. In some books, several chapters were mixed and the endings are mixed or mispositioned.
3. 18th century ~ early 19th century
It was the heyday of the Gwanpan, which was influenced by the dates from King Sukjong to the early years of King Sunjo. The size and typefaces of the letters vary, the engraving technology is elaborate, and at the time of printing, it can be seen as the highest level in all publishing areas. The Seowonpan and Sagapan version were also at this level because they were affected by this. The Sachalpan, however, gives a feeling of relative retreat compared to other times.
4. The late 19th century to the late 20th century
Although the former face remained intact, engraving technology was much regressed. It was a time when the Chinese style engraving was influenced by Chinese books. In particular, in the early 20th century, printing on wooden prints was carried out in order to publish a collection of literary books and genealogy of local peoples in the provinces. With the spread of lithograph printing, the proportion of the collections of books and family tree adopting this method has increased. In the case of pastoral printing, he published personal collections and collections of poems from the 1960s to the 1970s in Sangju, Sancheong, and Hapcheon, Korea.